Water resource management refers to the conservation, custody and transport monitoring of water as a natural resource. Measurements are made to quantify water for the purpose of protection, forecasting, management, lawmaking, enforcement, policymaking, resource allocation and public reporting.
Water shortage, water pollution and flood impacts are among the most urgent problems in river management. The number of flood disasters worldwide has increased significantly in recent years. While this may partly be due to a changing climate, the additional utilization of flood plains for transportation corridors, housing, and agriculture also results in a reduction of the natural capacity of catchments to attenuate runoff.
Dams and reservoirs store water for power, potable water supply, and irrigation, and are also used to mitigate the potentially devastating effects of floods and droughts. At the same time they may have negative environmental and social impacts. There is therefore an increasing demand for detailed and accurate assessments of the environmental impacts of these facilities, and for optimizing operation of existing dams to minimize the adverse effects while maximizing the benefits.
It is challenging to maintain quality water supplies to existing communities, let alone planning for the future growth. Much of the infrastructure utilized in the collection, treatment, and distribution of water is aging and requires assessment to determine the best replacement and rehabilitation strategies. Clean, efficient, and reliable water supplies ensure the sustainability of a community, with improved human health and economic viability. Wastewater planning is equally important for a community’s long term success. Efficient collection, treatment, discharge, and reclamation require water managers to leverage the best available technologies.